Movement of the extremities prevents joint stiffness (painful shoulder, clubfoot...) and muscular atrophy, and improves breathing and blood circulation. Perform 3-4 daily sessions of exercises, repeating each exercise 5-10 times during each session, always slowly and smoothly, without becoming tired or feeling pain.
The patient will stretch his or her arms out in front, raising them above the head as shown in the picture, keeping them elevated for 5 seconds and then lowering them to the initial position, repeating the movement 5-10 times.
The exercise can be done lying on the bed or seated in a chair.
Lying face up on the bed, with one leg bent, raise the other leg (straightened), hold for 5 seconds and then lower slowly. Repeat this movement 5-10 times with each leg.
If the patient does not have enough strength to raise the leg, the exercise may be done by placing a pillow or cushion below the knees and pressing these down towards the pillow for 5 seconds, then relaxing and repeating 5-10 times.
When the patient is seated in a chair, extend the legs and maintain them for 5 seconds, gently bending them afterwards, and repeating 5-10 times with each leg.
To strengthen the gluteus muscles, lying face up on the bed, the patient will press the buttocks for 5 seconds, and afterwards release them. Repeat 5-10 times.
This is a fundamental movement to follow through with postural changes and hygiene, since it is a starting point to first sit up and then stand and walk.
In a side rotation, the caregiver will stand on the side of the bed towards which the patient will be rotated, while the patient lies face up with legs bent and arms extended and raised in front of the body with the hands clasped, completing the side rotation easily and with minimum impulse and effort.
If the patient is not able to do it alone, we will place him or her in the position described and rotate towards us, holding the hands and knees, or we may impulse from the shoulder and hip.
Once the patient is comfortably positioned, centered on the bed to avoid falls, we will place a support pillow under the back and between the legs.
After sitting on the edge of the bed or in the chair, holding on to the back of a chair or a window sill, stand and remain upright until noticing tiredness, and then sit on the bed or the chair behind you, rest a bit and repeat the same procedure.
When you have enough strength, in the same position, try to bend over and stand up as shown in the picture.
Progressively begin walking, initially with the help of another person or a walker, doing short routes that will grow as you gain strength and confidence.